The laboratory, established in 2010, enables comprehensive physical and chemical characterization of surfaces and volumes of materials and structures produced at the micro- and nanometer scale. Its modern equipment allows for observations and analysis of the morphology (e.g. topography, structure) of surfaces as well as their surface and bulk chemical composition.
This enables studies on important features of both materials (semiconductor, dielectric and conductive, those already used or envisioned for applications in electronics), as well as structures and devices manufactured from them, including micro- and nano-electronics, photonics, hybrid microsystems, as well as MEMS and MOEMS systems.
The laboratory performs precise measurements of current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and measurements of thermally induced current (TSC - Thermally Stimulated Current) in the temperature range of the substrate of 10K - 300K.



  1. Dektak 150 VEECO profilometer - a device enabling measurements of surface profile (i.e. its topography, faults) along arbitrary line. Vertical resolution (z) – several nm, horizontal resolution (x-y) – 1 m.

  2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) HITACHI S-3400N enabling observations of topography and surface structure. Magnification – up to 300,000 times. Resolution – submicrometer. Possibility of angled observation of the sample. No sample preparation required. Analysis of elemental composition of the surface using the Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscope (EDS).

  3. OLYMPUS LEXT OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope enabling imaging of 2D and 3D samples. Magnification – up to 14,400 times. Vertical resolution (z) – 10 nm, horizontal resolution (x-y) – 120 nm.

  4. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) MILLBROOK MiniSIMS enables analyses of chemical composition of samples in static, surface mapping and dynamic modes (sample digestion and depth profiling of chemical composition). Resolution (ion beam f: <10 mm for conductive materials and <50 mm for non-conductive materials).

  5. High-frequency (10 MHz - 13.5 GHz) impedance analyzer AGILENT N4395A used to determine electrophysical parameters of electronic materials in the range of radio frequencies (RF) and microwave (MW) electromagnetic radiation.

  6. Automatic probe station for measuring I-V and C-V characteristics of semiconductor structures.

  7. JANIS CCR10 probe station for cryogenic measurements, operating in the temperature range of 10K-300K.

  8. Station for measuring I-V characteristics of high-voltage semiconductor structures (3.3 kV).

  9. KEYSIGHT B2985A picoammeter with voltage source.

  10. KEITHLEY SCS4200 system for electrical measurements of semiconductor structures.


The laboratory is located in the Electrical Engineering Building (GE), entrance A, room no. 421.
Supervisor: Mariusz Sochacki, PhD, DSc


Laboratory capabilities:

  • assembly of semiconductor structures with dimensions from 2 x 2 mm to 8 x 8 mm on substrates with Au, Ag, Ni, Cu metallization using reflow process with SAC alloys, sintering technology using silver-based pastes, gluing technology with electroconductive pastes and a unique technology bare-Si joining for metallization of Au or Ag using silver-based pastes;

  • making wire connections using the ultracompression method using aluminum wires with a diameter of 25 mm to 100 mm, ultrathermocompression method using silver wires with a diameter of 25 mm and 50 mm and gold tape;

  • assembly of flip-chip structures up to 8 x 8 mm using SAC pastes and electrically conductive adhesives (H20E);

  • climate chamber tests of components and modules (chamber of 64 dm3, in the temperature range from -40oC to +180oC, for humidity tests the temperature range from +10oC to +95oC for relative humidity from 10% to 98%);

  • engraving and laser cutting.



  1. CAMMAX PRECIMA EBD65 – chip bonder for mounting chips on substrates

  2. CAMMAX PRECIMA FC300 – flip chip bonder for chip assembly using flip chip technology, assembly accuracy of several dozen micrometers

  3. CAMMAX PRECIMA PPS60-P – oven (hot plate) with precise control of the temperature profile up to 400°C, for the implementation of very accurate temperature profiles for soldering and gluing

  4. IRS 1000 – furnace for reflow soldering of printed circuit boards using short infrared

  5. MM500 – assembly manipulator from Mechatronika Sp. J. with a syringe dispenser and the ability to stack up to 100 elements

  6. Bonder for ultracompression UK4, manufactured by IBSPiE PW, connections established using Al wires.

  7. Ultrathermocompression bonder NFF009 53XXXBDA by FK DELVOTEC, connections using Au wires

  8. Technolab’s EasyInspector TD inspection system for optical inspection


The laboratory is located in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering Building, side staircase A, room no. 427 and 429.

Supervisor: Mariusz Sochacki, PhD, DSc



  • KEITHLEY 4200-SCS system for characterization of semiconductor devices containing five static source measurement units (4210-SMU), including two equipped with a preamplifier (4200-PA) ensuring measurement of currents in the range of up to 1 pA (with an accuracy of 1% of rdg + 10 fA), small-signal unit (4210-CVU) and two-channel pulse unit (4225-PMU) with two remote ultra-fast switches (4225-RPM);
  • KEYSIGHT B1500A semiconductor device characterization system;
  • HP 4285A LCR meter;
  • KEITHLEY 237 SMU unit (High Voltage SMU);
  • low-noise, fully shielded Suss PM-8 manual probe station equipped with six precise manipulators with needles with a diameter of 3, 5, 7 and 20 μm;
  • cooling unit (chiller), which, in combination with a heated measuring table, enables instrument measurements in the temperature range from -60°C to 200°C;
  • HORIBA JOBIN-YVON Uvisel 2 spectroscopic ellipsometer enabling measurements of optical properties of layers and layered systems in the wavelength range of 190-850 nm;
  • THETAMETRISIS reflectometer for measuring optical properties of thin films (thickness, transmittance, reflectance);
  • four-point probe for measuring resistivity/resistance and conductivity of conductive materials.

Measurement capabilities:

  • static characteristics (I-V) with current or voltage sourcing;
  • endurance measurements (breakdown voltage) in the range from 0 to 1000 V;
  • stress-and-sense static characteristics (voltage or current stress, voltage or current response);
  • measurement of small resistances using the four-pin method in a full-Kelvin connection;
  • quasi-static C-V measurements;
  • admittance measurements (C-G-V, C-R-V) in a very low frequency range regime (1 mHz - 10 Hz);
  • small-signal admittance characteristics (C-G-V, C-R-V) in the frequency range of 75 kHz – 30 MHz with a step of 100 Hz;
  • small-signal characteristics C-V, G-V and R-V in the frequency range of 1 kHz – 10 MHz with a step of 10/decade;
  • general purpose ultrafast I-V measurements;
  • measurements using the charge pumping method.

Location: Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Division of Microelectronics and Nanoelectronics Devices, Faculty of Electrical Engineering Building, 3rd floor

Supervisor: Robert Mroczyński, BEng, PhD, DSc




Among the laboratory premises, three areas can be distinguished: (1) the laboratory's technical support rooms (the so-called machine room) and the changing room, (2) the main part of the laboratory separated from the changing room by an airlock, (3) separate rooms for carrying out the photolithography process (purity class ~100) and performing wet chemical operations (the so-called wet chemistry).

In the main part of the Laboratory (Cleanroom), a constant overpressure is maintained (in relation to the surrounding rooms), which constitutes an effective barrier to all types of dust and contamination, and a constant temperature (approx. 22°C) and air humidity (approx. 40%) are maintained by the air conditioning system. In the main room of the laboratory, a purity class of 1000 is guaranteed. The equipment in the technological laboratory, supported by the skills acquired over many years of research, allows for the implementation of a very wide range of technological processes and research in the field of electronics and photonics (production of semiconductor structures and devices), MEMS/MOEMS microsystems, but also (as has already been proven in practice in recent years) in the field of chemistry (e.g. lab-on-chip, sensors), bio-engineering (e.g. DNA sensors) or materials engineering (research on new materials for use in next-generation integrated circuits, or unusual materials compatible with broadband semiconductors).


3D Tour of the Technology Laboratory:


Technological processes implemented in the Laboratory

  1. Surface preparation processes of substrates or products
    Processes performed in a chemical fume hood under constant negative pressure, which prevents vapors of volatile reagents from escaping into laboratory rooms. The processes implemented are aimed at cleaning, preparing and modifying substrates in liquid solutions before commencing to subsequent technological processes. Substrates used in technological processes are primarily semiconductor wafers (silicon, silicon carbide, gallium nitride, gallium arsenide) and glass wafers (sapphire, quartz). Some research works use metal substrates or finished metal products (steel, titanium), glass optical fibers and ceramic materials (Al2O3, AlN, BN). Various types of chemical reagents and their solutions are used in surface preparation processes.
  2. Thermal oxidation processes

    Processes carried out in a reactor specially prepared for this purpose - a high-temperature furnace. Typical process temperatures range from 700°C to 1200°C. Working gases (oxygen, N2O, NO, nitrogen, argon) are introduced into the quartz tubes of the high-temperature furnace. In the case of wet oxidation process, the steam atmosphere is created using a deionized water saturator, through which nitrogen is fed into the high-temperature furnace tubes. Substrates (tiles) are fed into the furnace on a quartz boat using a quartz manipulator. The most common materials oxidized in this way are silicon and silicon carbide.

  3. Doping by means of high-temperature diffusion
    The doping process by diffusion is carried out in a high-temperature furnace with a quartz tube. The typical process takes place at the temperature of 850°C – 950°C. The carrier gas is nitrogen, the working gas is oxygen and nitrogen. In the case of boron diffusion (B), the source of the dopant are ceramic disks made of boron nitride (BN). In the case of phosphorus diffusion, the source takes a gaseous form. Nitrogen is fed to the saturator filled with POCl3, acting as a carrier gas. The furnace is equipped with an exhaust hood at the pipe outlet, which removes reaction products and unreacted chemical compounds in the gaseous phase during the process, preventing them from entering the laboratory room. A typical material doped under the described conditions are silicon substrates.

  4. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)
    The process of deposition of thin dielectric (oxides and nitrides of silicon) and semiconductor (amorphous silicon) layers in a vacuum reactor equipped with a plasma generator with a frequency of 13.56 MHz and a power of up to 300 W. Typical gases feeding the PECVD reactor are: silane (SiH4 diluted in nitrogen or helium), nitrogen, oxygen and argon. The negative pressure created by vacuum systems prevents gases and chemical products in the volatile phase from escaping from the device into the laboratory room. Additionally, before opening the reactor, it is filled with nitrogen twice and pumped out, which prevents post-reaction gases and reaction products from escaping into the environment after opening the vacuum chamber. Deposition processes are carried out on semiconductor, glass, ceramic and metal substrates described in point 1.
  5. Reactive ion etching (RIE)
    A process used for sputtering and chemical dry plasma etching of dielectric (silicon oxides and nitrides) and semiconductor materials (silicon, silicon carbide, gallium nitride, gallium arsenide) in fluorine and chlorine plasma in a vacuum reactor equipped with a plasma generator with a frequency of 13.56 MHz and power up to 300 W. Argon and nitrogen mixtures are used for ion sputtering. For chemical plasma etching, working gases SF6, CF4, CHF3 are used, often dosed in the form of a mixture with oxygen. The negative pressure created by vacuum systems prevents gases and chemical products in the volatile phase from escaping from the device into the laboratory room. Additionally, before opening the reactor, it is filled with nitrogen twice and pumped out, which prevents post-reaction gases and reaction products from escaping into the environment after opening the chamber.
  6. Wet chemical etching
    Processes performed in a chemical fume hood under constant negative pressure, which prevents vapors of volatile reagents from escaping into laboratory rooms. The processes carried out are aimed at chemical etching of the surface of materials in appropriately prepared chemical solutions. A typical example of such a process is the etching of silicon or silicon carbide in aqueous solutions of potassium hydroxide (KOH) or tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). Processes can be modified by adding surfactants to the solution. Isopropyl alcohol is commonly used for this purpose.
  7. Photolitography
    A process used to reproduce shapes in a photosensitive polymer emulsion hardened by ultraviolet radiation. Acetone-based solutions are most often used to process photosensitive emulsions. Photosensitive emulsions are spin-applied onto semiconductor, glass or ceramic substrates.
  8. Vacuum vapor deposition
    A process used for the vapor deposition of thin metallic layers carried out in a vacuum reactor under high or very high vacuum conditions. The basic sources of metals vaporized by heating caused by the flow of electric current are aluminum, chromium and gold. A modified vacuum deposition process using a high-energy electron beam is used to deposit thin layers of refractory metals (titanium, nickel, platinum, tungsten).
  9. Ion sputtering, reactive magnetron sputtering in RF plasma
    A vacuum process used for vapor deposition of thin metallic (titanium, gadolinium, aluminum, hafnium, zinc), dielectric (TiO2, Al2O3, AlN, HfO2) and semiconductor (ZnO) layers. The sputtering process of metallic materials is typically carried out in an argon atmosphere. Reactive magnetron sputtering process, aimed at obtaining materials with dielectric or semiconductor properties, is typically carried out in mixtures of oxygen or nitrogen with argon, sometimes nitrogen with oxygen. The metal sources are high-purity metal targets sputtered ionically or reactively, depending on the working gases used.


Catalog of typical products obtained in the Laboratory:

  • ultra-thin (single nm) and ultra-pure dielectric layers with high breakdown resilience,
  • thin dielectric layers acting as gate oxides in semiconductor technology, including dielectric layers with high electrical permittivity,
  • thin dielectric layers with a modified refractive index for optical applications (anti-reflective layers, protective layers and layers modifying the properties of optical elements),
  • thin dielectric and semiconductor layers used as coatings with specific mechanical properties (anti-slip layers, layers with a low coefficient of friction, hydrophilic and hydrophobic layers, etc.),
  • thick dielectric layers acting as passivation of high-voltage semiconductor devices,
  • structuring of substrates subjected to wet or dry etching processes (anisotropic etching of semiconductor and dielectric materials, anisotropic etching of silicon, production of trench and mesa structures,
  • producing mirror-like surfaces for various types of electromagnetic radiation,
  • production of periodic structures shaped by photolithography for photonic applications,
  • processes of transferring graphene from copper and polymer foils to other types of glass, dielectric and semiconductor substrates,
  • semiconductor junctions and diode structures obtained by changing the level of silicon doping as a result of high-temperature diffusion,
  • MOSFET/MISFET field effect transistors,
  • ion-sensitive ISFET field-effect transistors,
  • diodes and power transistors in silicon carbide technology,
  • optical radiation detectors, including UV radiation detectors with limited sensitivity to visible radiation,
  • X-ray detectors.


The laboratory has been carrying out electrical measurements of semiconductor structures and integrated circuits - encapsulated and unencapsulated - for over a decade. The fundamental item of the equipment base is the Summit 12000B-AP semi-automatic probe station from Cascade Microtech (currently FormFactor). It enables measurements on semiconductor substrate plates with a diameter of up to 200 millimeters. The station can be controlled by a measuring instrument or computer, which allows you to program a series of measurements that will be repeated on each of the structures created on a single substrate plate. The station's electromagnetic shielding allows currents to be measured at the level of single femtoamperes. The temperature control system allows measurements to be carried out in the temperature range from -55C to +200C. By using dedicated measurement cards, it is possible to test integrated circuits on a substrate board. The station is currently equipped with 6 DC manipulators for current-voltage measurements and 2 RF manipulators. DC measurements are currently performed using an Agilent B1500A semiconductor device characterizer (now Keysight), while RF measurements are performed using a ZVL6 vector circuit analyzer (VNA) from Rohde & Schwarz.

Location: Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, VLSI Engineering and Design Automation Division, Building of Electronics, GE, room no. 356A
Supervisor: Dominik Kasprowicz, PhD



The role of this laboratory is to teach basics of integrated circuits design and mobile applications development for Apple Inc. devices. It is equipped with 32 workstations (Apple Mac computers, various generations) and a single tablet (iPad) and a smartphone (iPhone). In this laboratory, teaching the art of computer programming is supported by Apple, as part of the Apple iOS University Developer Program.


Location: Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Department of Design Methods in Microelectronics, Faculty of Electronics Building, rooms no. 358 and 359

Supervisor: Adam Wojtasik, PhD



The laboratory is dedicated to teaching, completing diploma theses and conducting research in the area of designing large-scale microelectronic integrated systems.

The laboratory has workstations running on Linux. Professional CAD software and technology libraries for commercial semiconductor technologies are installed.


Location: Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, VLSI Engineering and Design Automation Division, Building of Electronics, GE, rooms no. 352 and 356.

Supervisor: Zbigniew Jaworski, PhD